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Leapfrog integration is the process of updating displacements and velocities at staggered points in time so that they “leapfrog” over one another.

Leapfrog integration is a method for numerically integrating differential equations of the type:

d x squared by dt² equals A of x

In order to solve the above equation the following numerical scheme is used:



A saga of bad modding

u/AwkwardTheTurtle is a popular power mod on reddit. Power mods moderates large amounts of subreddits. Awkward in particular moderates several thousand,popular subreddits).

The mod in question started karma farming by pinning their own comments in r/mildlyinfuriating and other subreddits. When user started to complain about this behavior they banned them from the subreddit and changed the rules so that new users can’t access the corresponding subreddit easily.

When many people became aware of their actions and started pointing out their comments/posts, they locked the thread with demeaning remarks.

This all resulted in various petitions that requesting ban on u/awkwardtheturtle. There is also a new community named r/againstturtle after this incident.

The user was banned as of 1st August 2021.



BytesIO are simply files stored in memory.

Why do I need to use bytes?

Sometimes when we need to do frequent operations/serial processes whose outputs depend on each other. Such processes are usually are storage-intensive. To avoid abusing the storage devices we need to find a way to store data in RAM.

Bytes IO

String IO


An example of rendering plots in memory with BytesIO

This is figure can directly be passed as a variable to Jinja/Jinja2 template engine and it’ll render it as webp.

return render_template('index.html', figure=figure)

Line 10 in WEBP IO decodes the stored image format in a way that is understood by the browsers. (Base 64 encoding/decoding)